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What is information most generally?

To consider the general nature of information I believe we must start with zero facts.  We ought not make assumptions constraining the nature of truth, unless truth in all its conceptions is consistent with our assumption.  To be general, whatever can be considered a truth by any conception must be considered information.  There is a lot we can say about what can be true or false without constraining information, and what can be true or false is what information is.    Allowing different perspectives on truth means truth has an indefinite truth value absolutely.  A truth may be perceived to be true, false, neither or both depending on perspective.  It is information in any case.  The classical notion of absolute truth must be abandoned to allow information to exhibit its unconstrained nature.  What is actualized information is what is logically constructed independent of any judgment of its truth value.  Extant logic includes all extant perspectives independent of judgment, or correctness of the perception. We cannot in general artificially limit information to a particular perception of truth.

We can distinguish between actual information constructed and hypothetical information that could be constructed.  The nature of information may be restricted to all constructable information systems.  There is no a priori bases to presume infinite information is extant.  Actual information systems have exhibited a finite number of states.

We can begin with information defined by Shannon as a sequence of conditional probabilities of bistable states values, termed bits, communicated from a sender to a receiver.  Like quantum qubits, these bits are undetermined and in a superposition of states except when the probability is one, or zero.  Furthermore, given various senders and receivers information generally may be dependent on the particular senders and receivers relative to perspective. The probability of a bit may be one in some contexts, zero in others, and undetermined in elsewhere, like quantum truth, bits do not commute between contexts naturally except as communicated between a sender and receiver exhibited by a coincident change in state of both the sender and receiver in a reversible functional relation. 

The significance of Shannon's theory beyond its direct contribution to the technological communication revolution is that any arbitrary signal can be represented by a finite number of bits.  While a bit being considered might be indeterminant, it can be expressed in finite a number of determinant bits, which independently are determined as local fact by thier occurance with a probability of one or zero.

More generally we can define a bit as a binary discrimination or as a distinction as in the Laws of Form.  The notion of it being true or false, one or zero, up or down, etc., absolutely limits information by imposing a prefered interpretation.  All that is actual is the change in state of the participants. The interpretation or meaning is independent of the bit.  The bit simply exhibits independent state, X is distinct for Y and Y is indepenemt of X.  It is a discrete distinction form nothingness.  The meaning of the bit is due to the context or perpective is is being considered in.

The language of information communication may be any language as exhibited by the perceived change in state of each participant.  We can expect any of the enumerable languages may be evidenced by any of the enumerable participant universal logic systems.

The instantaneous transformation of state of the participants may exhibit two cause and effect time relational perspectives where roles of the sender and receive are reversed, since neither transformation actually preceded the other except by perspective.

Such is the apparent case with the universe where all interaction consists of quantum communications ambiguous in time direction which exhibits what is actually constructed by these interactions in local time.  Given the general notion of information, the universe can be considered an information system constructed by collective perceptions of discrete events in local time.  We may consider the universe an information system, specifically a incredibly complex universal quantum computer embodying vast amounts of constructed information.

The notion of information implies categories, where the binary discrimination is membership in a category or not.  Significant categories include perspectives, identity, aspects, cause and effect relations, collective being, and the hypothetical grand synthesis of all perspectives.  Language is the functional communication.of bits or words of collections of bits, constituting a message, having a potentially independent congruent effect transforming the state in the context of the sender and the context of the receiver.

The metaphysics of the information universe include its self referential aspects. Physical information as existence is the new paradigm suggested by quantum nature.  Equal and opposite kinetic action corresponds to congruent information accounting for all we perceive.  Any pysical interpretation of fixed dimentionality we have imagined is flawed.  Only the information perspective stands uncontradicted.  The discrete function of ultimately communicating quantum information determines reality and distinguishes reality from what is possible, exhibiting equal and opposite linguistic action as physical momentum exchange manifolds of exitence, at the earliest physical opportunity, as confirmed by all experiment.

Modern theory involves the notion of tensors including scaler, vector and matrix influences.  Finite information excludes the notion of global tensors effecting everythig else in the universe.  Information dimensions are constructed locally by extant ordering and is not restricted to Euclidian ordering of any fixed dimension.  The emergent notion of global dimensionality in finite systems is constructed of commuted local logical ordering where commutation is only achieved by discrete communication.  To distigish the actual from the imagined we consider only information exibited by fact of determined bits. There is no evidence any other information is extant. 

A physical interpretation of information generally may be useful in visualizing information.  We can also apply this to physical information, for example we can visualize the aggragate effect of momentum exchanges of that we call photon exchanges as waves of electro magnetic radiation.  Quantum logically there is only equal and opposite quantum logical action exhibiting an independence of quantum state of equal momentum echange which excludes equal momentum states logically.  The actuality of individual photon exchanges does not exhibite any wave like property other than the very different notion of traversal of a half spin network.  The notion of the electro magnetic wave only emerges statistically with a very large number of events.  No quantum logical and hense no information variable changes as wave directly,  The logical change, when mapped to a clock perspective, exhbits actualized transverse  (angular or mass time) and lateral (space time) momentum exchange, at the earliest possible moment (straight line) delayed by distance of light (logic) speed, becomming actualized, as equal and opposite logic allows one another and thus passing each other, exchanging roles, at a relative local clock speed or relative energy, in obediance to the exclusion priciple.  As Carver Mead puts it, the univese conspires to prevent equal energies.  It does so by an exclusion from common state we experience as a momentum exchange..  There may be many logical paths to the conclution of logically independent states that otherwise seem to be of identucal clock speed of opposite phase or time perspective.  We cannot attribute a particular logical path and hense no particular physical path is exhibited of logical exclusion execution.  There is a relative logical time othering across time and space for each perspective and thus a local intepretation of time ordering of logical events or physical realizations..

We might say electromagnetic waves are an illusion, or an electron is an illusion, as they have a abstract nature according to probabilities, not enforced quantum logically, but emergent statistically in our relative information ecology most probably.  They represent a good approximation of real information in our information ecology and logcially determine or world to a great extent.  Since quantum logical systems represent universal logic, and any construtable logical system may be exhibited without restriction, no emerent logic is unconditional, hence uncertainty.  We experience conditional probabilities, and exceptions are engineered, in the information ecology, of the reality we experience.  We experience an information perspective information generally?

Similarly the notions of charge, magnetic moment, or any magical global influence or field at a distance is an emergent statistical effect of our perspective on discrete collective quantum logical action. Logical independence realizes physical orthogonality with a single bit of precision which exhibits dimensionality where there is no extension otherwise.  Transverse and lateral orthogonal folds synthesize relative space time However, the spin direction, and thus charge, does reverse for either
an electron or positron when it is receding, or traveling away.  This
is quite different from the ordinary case of a spinning object which
spins the same way independent of motion.

To understand how this could be we need to consider the nature and
meaning of half spin, (1/2)*[h/(2 Pi)], which is not really spinning
in the ordinary two dimensional sense, but turns around twice to face
the same original direction.  The easiest way to comprehend the
mathematics of it of it, for me, is to think that the first time
around it becomes its opposite, the electron becoming a positron
temporarily, and the second time around it becomes itself again.  This
can be visualized using the analogy of Dirac's belt.
http://gregegan.customer.netspace.net.au/APPLETS/21/21.html
In a sense, it turns around twice, without really turning around at
all.  Understanding that each time around is not continuous, but in
four discrete steps, accounts for how we see the twisting in reverse
direction by relative perspective such that it it looks backwards when
receding.

As it applies to quantum kinetics, the fact of independents, meaning
not representing the same or opposite aspects of a singular
disturbance in nothingness is the logical truth that determines what
we perceive as interaction where logical orthogonality implies a
physical orthogonality and exclusion from common state resulting in
the kinetics of momentum exchange by increasing distance of logical
independence by logical action at relative light speed.Bits are distinctions from nothingness that exhibit our world.  There
is no bit in isolation and no bit that does not have two perspectives.

Should it be the case, that reality is in actuality an information system, the answer to Wheller's challange, "How we get IT from BIT?", is a mute  question.  What might exist, and what is logically possible from any conception, from any extant perspective, may be actualized in our perspective by quantum logical arrangement.  Instead of rules constraining our universe to some specific theory of everything, universal logic exibits an unconstrined multivese.

Traditional science touts a specific information perspective.  If we are honest, we accept all known information perspectives stand contridicted in some comtext and have thus been falsified.  The new science is no longer about some preferred information perspective as the univese prefers none and exibits only that which has been exhibited by unrestricted collective logical action exibiting local relative electrodynamics and the emergent logical conditional probabilities or bits of information manifest in an unrestricted ecology of collective information amoung participants.